Meaning and Purpose at Work — Recommended Reading

in industrial organizational psychology, Uncategorized, Wellbeing

Nietzche quote: He who has a Why to live can bare almost any How.Meaning and purpose at work go far beyond the simplistic “Find your why” self-help trend that’s made millions for certain marketing gurus (though it would be more properly attributed to Nietzsche) or the appropriation of ikigai that’s the latest buzz.

There are no simple answers to meaning, only explorations. I suggest seekers take a look at Viktor Frankl’s “Man’s Search for Meaning” and, for contrast, Maslow’s “A Theory of Human Motivation.” Then bring it into the modern work context with Job Crafting and Cultivating Positive Meaning and Identity in Work, by Amy Wrzesniewski et al.

Gauged: Job Crafting Intervention for Meaning and Purpose, Part I

in job crafting

Desktop measurement instruments

We wellness professionals are an interventionist lot. Once we see that job crafting “in the wild” enhances wellbeing, reduces burnout, boosts performance, and eases adaptation to change, we want to know how we can make it happen.

And if we’re going to offer job crafting programs… We want to know what what works, based on evidence..

Let’s look at interventions based on two branches of job crafting:

  • What I call Job Crafting Classic — as I described in I Have Seen the Future of Employee Wellbeing. It’s Name is Job Crafting — in which workers modify the tasks of their job, the personal interactions they have, and their perception of the job in order to experience a greater sense of meaning and purpose, and to increase work engagement, satisfaction, resilience, and thriving.
  • What I call Job Demands-Resources Job Crafting — as described in my article The Good, the Bad, and the Crafty: Challenges and Hindrances in JD-R Job Crafting — in which workers seek resources, seek challenges, and ratchet down “hindering” demands in order to achieve much of what’s achieved in Job Crafting Classic, but with more emphasis on well-being and, theoretically, health.

Job Crafting Classic

In a controlled study at a large tech company, employees were happier and more effective in their jobs 6 weeks after completing the Job Crafting Exercise™. This quick video Job Crafting Classic intervention and some outcomes…

Desktop measurement instruments

As far as I can tell, outcomes from this particular intervention, which was spearheaded by Amy Wrysznewksi, Jane Dutton, and Justin Berg, weren’t published in a peer-reviewed journal.

A Japanese study delivered a variation of The Job Crafting Exercise to 54 manufacturing managers and 25 psychiatric hospital workers. The intervention led to improved levels of work engagement, reduced stress, and an increase in job crafting behavior.

Increasing job crafting behavior — Wrzesniewski et al describe a job-crafting mindset — is important. The intention of these programs is not to have participants modify their jobs at the intervention workshop and then go about their merry way; it’s to have them re-envision their jobs as malleable and to develop their skills and their sense of empowerment…so they can establish and continuously improve their person-job fit.

Interventions and evidence for JD-R Job Crafting are a different story — one that will be told in Part II.

I’ve Seen the Future of Employee Wellbeing. Its Name Is Job Crafting.

in job crafting

Crafting clay

First, the Premise: Work Shapes Wellbeing

The foundation of employee wellbeing isn’t employee behavior — it’s workplace exposure. Exposure to things like…

  • the physical environment,
  • the psychosocial environment,
  • the policies of the organization,
  • the work itself.

Designing jobs to optimize these exposures is a direct path to creating healthier work.

The employer that values employee wellbeing will design jobs that offer

  • autonomy,
  • manageable demands,
  • well defined roles,
  • fairness,
  • appropriate rewards,
  • plenty of personal and professional support.

As the business world crams countless sections into its wellbeing pie charts, it persistently omits the core: For a sustainable workforce, healthy work comes first.

What Is Job Crafting?

In job crafting, employees tweak any combination of…

  • their tasks,
  • their workplace interactions,
  • the way they view their jobs.

One of the most commonly cited examples comes from Amy Wrzesniewski and Jane Dutton, who first coined the phrase job crafting in 2001. In their study of hospital housekeepers, some workers distinguished themselves by envisioning their role as part of the care team, taking the initiative to chip in where they could to make the environment more patient-friendly — adjusting a picture on the wall of a patient’s room, delivering a glass of water, or spending more time interacting with patients and visitors.

The researchers wrote,

When hospital cleaners integrate themselves into patient care functions, they are able to see their work as being about healing people and to see themselves as a key part of this process, thus enhancing work meaning and creating a more positive work identity.

A variety of workers studied, from machine operators to engineers to sales professionals, have been found to experience greater job satisfaction, better performance, less burnout, and enhanced wellbeing by bringing more meaning to their jobs via self-initiated or intervention-based job crafting.

I’ve come to see job crafting as the workforce sustainability intervention many of us have sought: An evidence-based, employee-centric methodology that can enhance employee wellbeing in a manner aligned with employers’ priorities.

Job crafting is not the solution, but it may be the keystone for employers that have their house in order. It’s one answer to the question, “Okay, we value autonomy, employee engagement, a supportive environment, and the rest… But what do we do about it?”

Job crafting is a tool — not a substitute — for good management.

If you may be interested in hosting a job-crafting beta workshop later in the coming year, touch base via the Jozito.com contact form.


A version of post was originally published on LinkedIn on December 28, 2017.